Kul Kul Stu Hah and Adoption

Big Hole Battlefield


Kul Kul Stu Hah's father was killed in the Battle of Big Hole (Montana) in 1877 and his mother was captured by whites and exiled to Oklahoma soon afterwards.

He and other Nez Perce, about a third of the surviving members of the tribe, fled to Canada where they remained for some years, and then he returned to the USA as a young adult to be reunited with his mother. He was ordained a Presbyterian minister and served the Nez Perce as a clergyman, and as a delegate to the Presbyterian General Assembly representing both whites and Indians.


Hirschfelder, Arlene, and Molin, Paulette. Encyclopedia of Native American Religions: An Introduction. (New York: Facts on File, 1992) ("Arthur, Mark K.")