Mountain Wolf Woman and Adoption


Born to a traditionalist Winnebago family, Mountain Wolf Woman converted to Christianity and then to Peyotism.

She was adopted by a Lakota family to replace a dead daughter (see also Shenandoah), but also retained her place in her birth family. She was an influential member of the Peyote religion, and foretold her own death in 1960.


Hirschfelder, Arlene, and Molin, Paulette. Encyclopedia of Native American Religions: An Introduction. (New York: Facts on File, 1992) Mountain Wolf Woman. Mountain Wolf Woman, Sister of Crashing Thunder: The Autobiography of a Winnebago Indian, edited by Nancy Oestreich Lurie. (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1961) (There are also a video and resource guide based on this autobiography)