Roland and Adoption
The hero of the medieval epic, the Song of Roland is described in a fourteenth-century Italian version, the Geste Francor, as the adoptive son of Charlemagne: "Charles loved him so much, that he kept him as his adoptive son ["figiuolo adottivo"], and Charles called him son most of the time; and thus it was said that Orlandino [Roland] was Charles' son; but he was a son out of love, not originated in sin."
Microsoft Encarta 98 Encyclopedia, 1993-97 Morgan, Leslie Z. "Italian Literature: Geste Francor, Franco-Italian Epic: The Geste Francor (anonymous)." Available at: orb.rhodes.edu/encyclop/culture/lit/Italian/morganintro.html