Young Adults: Additional Resources

This article has been taken directly from Child Welfare Information Gateway.

American Adoption Congress. This nonprofit membership organization provides education, advocacy, and support for families touched by adoption.

Adoptees’ Liberty Movement Association (ALMA). This nonprofit membership organization provides education, advocacy, and support for families touched by adoption.

Child Welfare Information Gateway. This service of the Children’s Bureau provides information and publications about a wide range of adoption topics. It also provides adoption statutes for each State.

Donaldson Adoption Institute. The Adoption Institute provides information about a wide array of adoption issues.

Minnesota/Texas Adoption Research Project. This website provides information on a longitudinal study of openness in adoption.

Open Adoption Bloggers. This website lists more than 300 blogs about open adoption, including those by adopted persons, birth parents, and adoptive parents.

Return to Adoption Parenting

Young Adults: Postadoption Issues

Young Adults: Openness, Searching, and Access to Family History

Young Adults: Managing Adoption Issues


Baden, A. L., & O’Leary Wiley, M. (2007). Counseling adopted persons in adulthood: Integrating research and practice. The Counseling Psychologist, 35, 868–901.

Borders, L. D., Penny, J. M., & Portnoy, F. (2000). Adult adoptees and their friends: Current functioning and psychosocial well-being. Family Relations, 49, 407–418.

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Corder, K. (2012). Counseling adult adoptees. The Family Journal, 20, 448–452.

Cubito, D. S., & Obremski Brandon, K. (2000). Psychological adjustment in adult adoptees: Assessment of distress, depression, and anger. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 70, 408–413.

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Evan B. Donaldson Adoption Institute. (2009). Beyond culture camp: Promoting health identity formation in adoption. Retrieved from

Evan B. Donaldson Adoption Institute. (2010). For the records II: An examination of the history and impact of adult adoptee access to original birth certificates. Retrieved from pdf.

Feigelman, W. (2005). Are adoptees at increased risk for attempting suicide? Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 32, 206–216.

Grotevant, H. D. (1997). Coming to terms with adoption: The construction of identity from adolescence into adulthood. Adoption Quarterly, 1, 3–27.

Grotevant, H. D., Miller Wrobel, G., Von Korff, L., Skinner, B., Newell, J., Friese, S., & McRoy, R. G. (2007). Many faces of openness in adoption: Perspectives of adopted adolescents and their parents. Adoption Quarterly, 10, 79–101.

Grotevant, H. D., van Dulmen, M. H. M., Dunbar, N., Nelson-Christinedaughter, J., Christensen, M., Fan, X., & Miller, B. C. (2006). Antisocial behavior of adoptees and nonadoptees: Prediction from early history and adolescent relationships. Journal of Research on Adolescents, 16, 105–131.

Howard, J. A. (2012). Untangling the web: The Internet’s transformative impact on adoption. Retrieved from

Kohler, J. K., Grotevant, H. D., & McRoy, R. G. (2002). Adopted adolescents’ preoccupation with adoption: The impact on adoptive family relationships. Journal of Marriage and Family, 64, 93–104.

Miller, B. C., Fan, X., Grotevant, H. D., Christensen, M., Coyl, D., & van Dulment, M. (2000). Adopted adolescents’ overrepresentation in mental health counseling: Adoptees’ problems or parents’ lower threshold for referral? Journal of American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 39, 1504–1511.

Muller, U., & Perry, B. (2001). Adopted persons’ search for and contact with their birth parents I: Who searches and why? Adoption Quarterly, 4, 5–37.

Penny, J., Borders, L. D., & Portnoy, F. (2007). Reconstruction of adoption issues: Delineation of five phases among adult adoptees. Journal of Counseling & Development, 85(1), 30–41.

Powell, K. A., & Afifi, T. D. (2005). Uncertainty management and adoptees’ ambiguous loss of their birth parents. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 22, 129–151.

Sharma, A. R., McGue, M. K., & Benson, P. L. (1996). The emotional and behavioral adjustment of United States adopted adolescents: Part I. An overview. Children and Youth Services Review, 18(1/2), 83–100.

Siegel, D. H. (2012). Growing up in open adoption: Young adults’ perspectives. Families in Society: The Journal of Contemporary Social Services, 93, 133–140.

Siegel, D. H., & Livingston Smith, S. (2012). Openness in adoption: From secrecy and stigma to knowledge and connections. Retrieved from

Yoon, G., Westermeyer, J., Warwick, M., & Kuskowski, M. A. (2012). Substance use disorders and adoption: Findings from a national sample. PLoS ONE, 7. Retrieved from


Child Welfare Information Gateway. (2013). Impact of adoption on adopted persons. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Children’s Bureau.