Elizabeth Cleghorn Gaskell and Adoption
Gaskell's mother died before she was one month old, and she was raised partly by an aunt, but her childhood was spent in a succession of families rather than with her father.
She was a friend and biographer of Charlotte Brontë and is reckoned one of the best English novelists of the nineteenth century.
Microsoft Encarta 98 Encyclopedia, 1993-97 Dictionary of National Biography Matsuoka, Mitsuharo. "The Gaskell Web." [Includes portraits]. Available at: