J. Rudyard Kipling and Adoption
Kipling was born to English parents in Bombay, but when he was six years old he and his sister were sent back to England, where they were fostered until 1877 by a rigidly Calvinistic family who abused him physically and emotionally, while favoring his sister. His mother eventually returned to England and rescued him. He then went to a brutal boarding school until he rejoined his parents in India when he was 17, to work as a journalist.
He and his wife lived in Vermont for a short time but returned to England. His books include Plain Tales from the Hills, Jungle Book, Captains Courageous, Kim, and the Just So Stories.
In 1907 he won the Nobel Prize for literature.
Dever, Maria, and Dever, Aileen. Relative Origins: Famous Foster and Adopted People. (Portland: National Book Company, 1992) Microsoft Encarta 98 Encyclopedia, 1993-97 Dictionary of National Biography Microsoft Encarta 98 Encyclopedia, 1993-97 Greene, Carol. Rudyard Kipling, Author of the Jungle Books. (Chicago: Children's Press, 1994) (Rookie Biographies) Martinez, Gabriel A. "Rudyard Kipling: A Brief Biography." Available at: www.stg.brown.edu/projects/hypertext/landow/victorian/kipling/rkbio.html "The Life of Kipling." Formerly available at: 22.214.171.124/htmls/rowhtml/kipling/page2.html