Intercountry Adoption Hauge and Non-Hauge Convention Countries: Participating Countries
This information was taken directly from Child Welfare Information Gateway
The process for adopting a child from another country (intercountry adoption) changed in some significant ways with the U.S. ratification of the Hague Convention on Protection of Children and Co-operation in Respect of Intercountry Adoption (the Convention). The Convention went into effect in the United States on April 1, 2008. The Convention is designed to promote the best interests of children, biological families, and adoptive families and to prevent the abduction, sale, and trafficking of children. In this country, the U.S. Department of State has overall responsibility for implementing the Convention, although the U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) within the Department of Homeland Security also plays a significant role.
As of August 2013, approximately 89 nations are parties to the Convention (U.S. Department of State, Bureau of Consular Affairs, Office of Children’s Issues, 2013). (To view the list of countries, visit http://adoption.state.gov/hague_convention/countries.php.) When a U.S. citizen wants to adopt a child from any of these nations, Convention rules apply. When adopting a child from a country that is not a party to the Convention (a non-Convention country), the rules of the orphan visa process apply.
This factsheet is designed to provide basic comparative information about the two types of intercountry adoption, as well as resources for more detailed information. It is a companion piece to Intercountry Adoption: Where Do I Start? (https://www.childwelfare.gov/pubs/f_inter/index.cfm). Prospective parents are encouraged to read that publication for more complete information on the intercountry adoption process and related decisions. Prospective parents should also check the websites of the U.S. Department of State (http://www.adoption.state.gov/) and USCIS (http://www.uscis.gov/ adoption).
Note: This factsheet is intended to provide a general overview of intercountry adoption. It is not intended to serve as a detailed directory of legislation, nor is it intended to provide legal advice. For more detailed information, check with an accredited or approved adoption services agency or attorney. For a list of accredited or approved providers, visit the Department of State’s adoption services provider search at http://adoption.state.gov/hague_convention/agency_accreditation/agency_search.php.
For an up-to-date list of all Convention countries, go to http://adoption.state.gov/hague_convention/countries.php. The Convention countries from which the most children were adopted in the United States in 2012 were:
- India (U.S. Department of State, Bureau of Consular Affairs, Office of Children’s Issues, 2013)
The non-Convention countries from which the most children were adopted in the United States in 2012 were:
- Republic of Korea (U.S. Department of State, Bureau of Consular Affairs, Office of Children’s Issues 2013)
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Child Welfare Information Gateway. (2014). Intercountry adoption from hague convention and non-hague convention countries. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
Child Welfare Information Gateway. (2012). Finding and using postadoption services. Retrieved from https://www.childwelfare.gov/pubs/f_postadoption.cfm
Pinderhuges, E., Matthews, J., Deoudes, G., & Pertman, A. (2013). A changing world: Shaping best practices through understanding of the new realities of intercountry adoption. Retrieved from http://adoptioninstitute.org/publications/a-changing-world-shaping-best-practices-through-understanding-of-the-new-realities-of-intercountry-adoption/
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families. (2014). Re-homing of adopted children: responsibilities for states and opportunities in the provision of postadoption services. (ACYF-CB-IM-14-02). Retrieved from http://www.acf.hhs.gov/sites/default/files/cb/im1402.pdf
U.S. Department of State, Bureau of Consular Affairs. (2013). Convention countries. Retrieved from http://adoption.state.gov/hague_convention/countries.php
2 A third way to legally bring an adopted child to reside permanently in the United States is the immediate relative process. For more information, visit http://www.uscis.gov/adoption/immigration-through-adoption/other-adoption-related-immigration.